Conflict Resolution in Islamic World: Makkah and Madinah Era

Conflict Resolution in Islamic World: Makkah and Madinah Era

War is something that hate by muslimin, because the core of the war is killing the human. In here Muslim may not to destroy what has been created by Allah SWT. In order of that Al Qur’an mentioned that war is something that hate by mukminin and cannot allow it. But they want to do it, if Allah SWT order and obligate it for goodness itself. Islam also have point view about the conflict, hostilities, brotherhood, war and peace.

“Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.”

“And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.”

“But if they cease, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them on until there is no more Tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah; but if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practise oppression.”

“The prohibited month for the prohibited month,- and so for all things prohibited,- there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye likewise against him. But fear Allah, and know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.” [Al-Baqara: 190-194]

Rosulullah SAW has spent many experiences in dakwah. Begin in Makkah that many Quraisy disturb him and his followers. Cruel treatment and assault have done by Quraisy to stop dakwah Rosulullah SAW. When these all was failed, they tried to change into propaganda.

They debate, making a mock, spread the bad issues and threat. This propaganda actually was, to attack the Islamic aqidah of the Muhammad’s followers. The result, they was failed.

This article attempts to describe the phenomenon of conflict, war and peace according to Islam. The writer strives to compare between two conditions when Rosulullah stayed in Makkah and then Madinah. Then it can conclude that Islam has arranged the regulation or give attention to the war as a step to do recently. There are so many lessons taken from the attitude that has done by Rosulullah SAW.

Makkah Period

After Rosulullah SAW had received the revelation, he directly does the dakwah in Makkah. Allah SWT has order him to give admonition that done firstly with his family and friends. Then arabs people and all of humankind. Dakwah of Rosulullah SAW divided into two steps; first, secret dakwah and second opened dakwah. In here the writer does not explain about the dakwah itself but how is the chapter of Qur’an explain about the war. What the causes behind of that?

In here we can see the brave of friend toward the slander and terror of musyirikin in Makkah. When the Quraisy had done the cruel treatment and assault to the muslimin, the situation of muslimin in that day was rather in serious condition. Chapter of Al Qur’an that discuss about the cruel was fallen in Makkah. This chapter explains about what muslimin must to do with the threat of Kafir Quraisy to them.

“And those who, when an oppressive wrong is inflicted on them, (are not cowed but) help and defend themselves. The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for (Allah) loveth not those who do wrong.

But indeed if any do help and defend themselves after a wrong (done) to them, against such there is no cause of blame. The blame is only against those who oppress men and wrong-doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a penalty grievous.

But indeed if any show patience and forgive, that would truly be an exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs.” [Ash-Shura: 39-43]

Allah SWT also said in His Qur’an,

“The prohibited month for the prohibited month,- and so for all things prohibited,- there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye likewise against him. But fear Allah, and know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.” [Al-Baqara: 194]

Allah has ordered muslimin that those who can take revenge so they can do it according to what they feel, or be patient and made allowance of person and that is will be better.

After has sent this chapter, muslimin begin to take revenge if all of musyrikin disturb them when do prayer. Although muslimin have received the chapter that allows them to take revenge, it does not mean allowing to war against musyrikin in Makkah. This thing showed by Rosulullah when offer to him to war by Al Abbas bin Aadhalah. Rosulullah said: “We have not been ordered to war. Therefore, go back to your horse.” (As Syuhayli, Juz 11, hal 192)

Madinah Period

When Rosulullah SAW went to Madinah, Quraisy felt so confuse. They were be afraid if Muhammad will build the new base in Madinah. The conspiration to kill Muhammad was high level, they want to kill before Muhammad leave Makkah. This is like Allah said in His Qur’an:

“Remember how the Unbelievers plotted against thee, to keep thee in bonds, or slay thee, or get thee out (of thy home). They plot and plan, and Allah too plans; but the best of planners is Allah.” [Al-Anfal: 30]

In Madinah, Rosulullah like has declare the state, it was Daulah Islam. One of causes why Rosulullah moved to Madinah, it was because the disturbing of Quraisy. Allah SWT has allowed to war when hijrah to Madinah like what Tirmidzi and Nasa’i told in their hadist. Ibn “Abbas said that: When Rosulullah SAW leave Mekkah, Abu Bakar said, they were illing their prophet, till he leave Makkah.” Then Allah said in His Qur’an:

“To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid“. [Al-Hajj: 39]

Actually Rosulullah is so difficult to hold the war, because there are so many requirements to do war, like what Muaz bin Jabal was sent to Yaman: Do not attack them before you do the dakwah to them, if they refuse, do not attack them until they begin first.

If they have begun the war, do not take revenge except one of you killed. When you show the body to the enemy, and said: is there any way that better for this? In truth if Allah has given hidayah because of your dakwah, it is better like everything was covered by the day and night (this universe).

The top of the concept that has made by Muhammad is the Constitution of Medina, it has settled the regulation Muhammad the prophet between the believers and muslims of quraisy and yatsrib and those who follow them and are attached to them and who crusade (jahadu) along with them.

In the Constitution of Medina, the main points are regulated about:

First, the interaction of mukmin that held with themselves.

Second, the interaction of muslimin with another society, it was arranged by Islamic law.

Third, the laws that arrange the interaction were Islamic law, so whatever the problem should back to Islamic law.

Fourth, the interaction of Muslimin that held with the Jewish community.

It can be clear to understand along the signer, the writer should write the chapter of what the Constitution of Medina,

  • A believer does not kill a believer because of an unbeliever, and does not help an unbeliever against a believer.
  • The security (dhimmah) of God is one, the granting of neighborly protection by the least of them is binding on them, and the believers are patrons of one another to the exclusion of other people.
  • Whoever of the Jews follows us has the same help and support (nasr, iswah) (as the believers) so long as they are not wronged by him and he does not help others against them.
  • The peace of the believers is one, no believers makes peace apart from another believer, where there is fighting in the way of God, except in so far as equality and justice between them is maintained.
  • The believers exact vengeance for one another where a man gives his blood in the way of God. The God-fearing believers are under the best and most correct guidance.
  • No idolater gives neighborly protection for good or person to Quraish, not intervenes in his favor against a believer.
  • When anyone wrongfully kills a believer, the evidence being clear, then he is liable to be killed in retaliation for him, unless the representative of the murdered man is satisfied (with a payment). The believers are against him (the murderer) entirely nothing is permissible to them except to oppose them.
  • It is not permissible for a believer who has agreed to what is in this document and believed in God and the last day to help a wrong doer or give him lodging. If anyone helps him or gives him lodging, then upon this man is the curse of God and His wrath on the day of resurrection, and from him noting will be accepted to make up for it or take its place.

It can be concluded that the tension of war was changed more higher followed the moving of Muhammad and his followers from Makkah to Madinah. Of course, it caused by the disturbing of Quraisy and Kafirin, Islam is not easy to let the muslim to do war, because there are so many requirement and regulation that to be compliant by muslimin.

Islam has choosen peace than war or conflict but when it was disturb the aqidah and belief of Islam then muslimin can take revenge. In here Rosulullah and then followed by Khalifah have given the example, how the muslim to do if there are terror, war or threat. So that it can be seen that Islam prefers conflict resolution than conflict.


2 thoughts on “Conflict Resolution in Islamic World: Makkah and Madinah Era

  1. war is human’s manifestation… since it was generated by the people who use rational choice for his life… then it would be end up the the GOD’s hand… coversely, with the war in the name of eradicating ‘unjustice’ and ‘dzalim’ is attempted by the human with his faith to the GOD…:-)

  2. nice “framing” of Islam, but I think at the end of the day, Islam is what u make of it (constructivist, again,hehe) coz Osama could use the very same verse to justify his “terror” as a Muslims’ retaliation on the “kafirin” that have violated islam n muslims. If Qutb were still alive, he could’ve blamed u for partial interpretation of Qur’an as to him, Qur’an mentioned not only defensive but also offensive jihad,, Our friends from what-so-called JIl or JIM might say that war n expansionist policy in early Islamic period was triggered by the specific cultural context in which territorial expansion was a means to gain the glory (Islam did so simply bcz Rome n Persian did so as well). Yet none of us can claim the absolute truth over another.
    P.S: no offense jenggis, but i think it’d be much better if u let other people to proof-read your writing b4 getting published,or at least spell-check it hehe. Overall, nice writing indeed 🙂

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